Community Modeling and Analysis System



SMOKE version 3.7 Release Notes


  • CRITICAL Bug Fix: Heat flux (HFLUX) value will be tripled when source-level acres burned (ACRESBURNED) variable is listed before HFLUX variable in daily fire invetory format (#ORL FIREEMIS).
  • Added an option to share the daily FF10-formatted inventory for daily fire inventory with heat flux (HFLUX) variable.
  • Added an option for user to process month-specific daily inventory from the daily FF10-format inventory by sharing the same SMKINVEN_MONTH.

SMOKE-MOVES Git Repositories


  • Enhancement: Apply the same internal SCC cross-referencing input file (SCCXREF) used for mobile activity inventories (i.e., VMT, VPOP, HOTELLING) to an optional averaged vehicle speed hourly profiles input file (SPDPRO) for RatePerDistance (RPD) processing.
  • Enhancement: Implemented a total of 21 hierarchy combinations based on FIPS, SCC, month and pollutant name for an optional control factors input file (CFPRO).

Temporal Update

  • Bug fix: Correctly apply Temporal hierarchy combination of FIPS and Plant ID for stationary point sources.

BEIS v3.6.1

  • Updated BEIS_VERSION value from "3.6" to "3.6.1".


  • Enhancements: Updated to output new temporal profile (TPRO) and cross-reference (TREF) input files


  • Enhancements: Riva Giuseppe Maurizio updated to support the latest FF10 formats

This is the official SMOKE website hosted by the Center for Environmental Modeling for Policy Development (CEMPD) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. SMOKE is an active open-source development project supported and distributed by the CEMPD through the Community Modeling and Analysis System Center.

SMOKE Training

Online SMOKE Training


Previous Documentation

System Requirements

O/S Linux
Processor 64-bit x86
Memory >2 Gb RAM
Disk Space > 40 Gb
Software I/O API, netCDF, Fortran ( Portland Group | Intel )

Online Resources


About the Developer

B.H. Baek

Dr. B.H. Baek took over lead SMOKE development in 2005. Prior to joining CEMPD he held positions at Colorado State and Texas A&M, where he conducted field monitoring compaigns studying livestock emissions. He earned is PhD from North Carolina State University in 2002 where he studied gas to particle conversions between ammonia, acid gases, and fine particles.

SMOKE-ready Data

SMOKE input data consist of emissions inventories, temporal and chemical speciation profiles, spatial surrogates, gridded meteorology and land use data, and other ancillary files for specifying the timing, location, and chemical nature of emissions. SMOKE is distributed with example data for getting started with the model. The example files distributed with SMOKE are for demonstration purposes only, they are not meant for real-world modeling applications.

The primary source for non-meteorology SMOKE input data is the U.S. EPA Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emissions Factors (CHIEF). The U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) Emissions Inventory and Analysis Group (EIAG) provides SMOKE inputs for different rule-making modeling platforms. These platforms include not only the NEI for both criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), but also all of the SMOKE ancillary data files created by EPA for use in SMOKE. EPA uses CHIEF to provide these data.

Meteorology data must be generated for specific SMOKE applications using either MM5, WRF, or a similar model. The output data from meteorology models must be formatted for SMOKE using a program like MCIP.

Additional useful links for SMOKE input data are provide below.

SMOKE Data Type SMOKE Data Sources
North America
Ancillary Data
Temporal - CHIEF Temporal Data
Spatial - CHIEF Spatial Surrogates (US and Canada), BELD3 Land Use
Chemical - CHIEF Speciation Profiles
Projection - CHIEF Projection Data

History of SMOKE

The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) Modeling System was originally developed at MCNC to integrate emissions data processing with high-performance computing (HPC) sparse-matrix algorithms. SMOKE is now under active development at the Institute for the Environment and is partially supported by the Community Modeling and Analysis System (CMAS).

SMOKE is primarily an emissions processing system designed to create gridded, speciated, hourly emissions for input into a variety of air quality models such as CMAQ, REMSAD, CAMX and UAM. SMOKE supports area, biogenic, mobile (both onroad and nonroad), and point source emissions processing for criteria, particulate, and toxic pollutants. For biogenic emissions modeling, SMOKE uses the Biogenic Emission Inventory System, version 2.5 (BEIS2) and version 3.09 and 3.14 (BEIS3). SMOKE is also integrated with the on-road emissions model MOBILE6 and MOVES.

The sparse matrix approach used throughout SMOKE permits rapid and flexible processing of emissions data. Rapid processing is possible because SMOKE uses a series of matrix calculations rather than a less-efficient sequential approach used by previous systems. Flexible processing comes from splitting the processing steps of inventory growth, controls, chemical speciation, temporal allocation, and spatial allocation into independent steps whenever possible. The results from these steps are merged together in the final stage of processing using vector-matrix multiplication. This means that individual steps (such as adding a new control strategy, or processing for a different grid) can be performed and merged without having to redo all of the other processing steps.

SMOKE is written in Fortran 90 and is designed to run on a variety of UNIX platforms. We currently provide executables for Linux and the source code is available for download and can easily be compiled for your particular system. We do not support running SMOKE on Windows, due to the inherent limitations of that system. The current version of SMOKE is version 2.5, although versions 1.5 - 2.4 are still available for download.

The original SMOKE concept was envisioned in the early 1990's at MCNC by Dr. Carlie Coats, now of Baron Advanced Meteorology Services. Marc Houyoux managed the development of SMOKE until his departure to the U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards in 2002. With active-development continuing at the CEMPD, lead SMOKE development was passed from Catherine Seppanen to Dr. B.H. Baek in 2005. While some SMOKE development is occurring outside of CEMPD, the primary line of development is managed by Dr. Baek under funding from the U.S. EPA.