Community Modeling and Analysis System


(Sparse Matrix Operator Kerner Emissions) Modeling System


SMOKE version 4.6 Release Notes

SMOKE4AERMOD Development

  • Generates customized Smkreport summary reports based on the latest U.S. EPA NEI inventories for SMOKE4AERMOD post-processing scripts that generate AERMOD helper input files for various inventory sectors. Following sectors are covered to support upcoming U.S. EPA NATA 2014 studies:
  • Supported Inventory Sectors: Nonpoint, Nonpoint oil and gas (np_oilgas), Point EGU (ptegu), Point Non-IPM (ptnonipm), Point Airports (ptairport), Nonroad, Onroad (RPD, RPV, RPH, RPP), Residential Wood Combustions (RWC), Commercial Marine Vessel (CMV) and Rail
  • SMOKE4AERMOD Design Documents describing how to develop sector-specific AERMOD helper input files for AERMOD chi/Q mode
  • Bug fixes since the SMOKE version 4.5 release in April 2017

Elevpoint Updates

  • Bug fix to avoid stacksize memory limit issue by reducing the local array size
  • Added NAICS code into an elevated source grouping supplimentary report (REPPELV)

Grdmat Updates

  • Bug fix for a proper reprojection to the same latitude-longitude projection pregridded emissions like EDGAR, RCP and HTAP global emissions input files

Inlineto2D [New Tool]

  • Allows users to merge the CMAQ inline-ready 2-D point sources emissions (INLN) and elevated source stack group (STACK_GROUPS) files to generate 2D hourly emissions

Movesmrge Updates

  • Reset any negative emission factors from MOVES lookup tables and give a warning message

Smkinven Updates

  • Bug fix to support a full or partial annual/daily/hourly TOG and HAPs integration

SMOKE Enhancements and Bug fixes

  • Expansion of the length of all stationary point source characteristics (i.e., Facility ID, Unit ID, Release point ID, and Process ID) from 15 characters to 20 characters
  • Treat stationary point source location coordinates as double precision to improve the accuracy of source locations within the modeling domain
  • Increased the length of Source Type (SRCTYPE) from 2 characters to 3 characters

This is the official SMOKE website hosted by the Center for Environmental Modeling for Policy Development (CEMPD) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. SMOKE is an active open-source development project supported and distributed by the CEMPD through the Community Modeling and Analysis System Center.

SMOKE Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • DOI

SMOKE Online Training


Previous Documentation

Online Resources


System Requirements

O/S Linux
Processor 64-bit x86
Memory >2 Gb RAM
Disk Space > 40 Gb
Software I/O API, netCDF, Fortran ( Portland Group | Intel )


About the Developer

B.H. Baek

Dr. B.H. Baek took over lead SMOKE development in 2005. Prior to joining CEMPD he held positions at Colorado State and Texas A&M, where he conducted field monitoring compaigns studying livestock emissions. He earned is PhD from North Carolina State University in 2002 where he studied gas to particle conversions between ammonia, acid gases, and fine particles.

SMOKE-ready Data

SMOKE input data consist of emissions inventories, temporal and chemical speciation profiles, spatial surrogates, gridded meteorology and land use data, and other ancillary files for specifying the timing, location, and chemical nature of emissions. SMOKE is distributed with example data for getting started with the model. The example files distributed with SMOKE are for demonstration purposes only, they are not meant for real-world modeling applications.

The primary source for non-meteorology SMOKE input data is the U.S. EPA Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emissions Factors (CHIEF). The U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) Emissions Inventory and Analysis Group (EIAG) provides SMOKE inputs for different rule-making modeling platforms. These platforms include not only the NEI for both criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), but also all of the SMOKE ancillary data files created by EPA for use in SMOKE. EPA uses CHIEF to provide these data.

Meteorology data must be generated for specific SMOKE applications using either MM5, WRF, or a similar model. The output data from meteorology models must be formatted for SMOKE using a program like MCIP.

Additional useful links for SMOKE input data are provide below.

SMOKE Data Type SMOKE Data Sources
North America
Ancillary Data
Temporal - CHIEF Temporal Data
Spatial - CHIEF Spatial Surrogates (US and Canada), BELD3 Land Use
Chemical - CHIEF Speciation Profiles
Projection - CHIEF Projection Data

History of SMOKE

The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) Modeling System was originally developed at MCNC to integrate emissions data processing with high-performance computing (HPC) sparse-matrix algorithms. SMOKE is now under active development at the Institute for the Environment and is partially supported by the Community Modeling and Analysis System (CMAS).

SMOKE is primarily an emissions processing system designed to create gridded, speciated, hourly emissions for input into a variety of air quality models such as CMAQ, REMSAD, CAMX and UAM. SMOKE supports area, biogenic, mobile (both onroad and nonroad), and point source emissions processing for criteria, particulate, and toxic pollutants. For biogenic emissions modeling, SMOKE uses the Biogenic Emission Inventory System, version 2.5 (BEIS2) and version 3.09 and 3.14 (BEIS3). SMOKE is also integrated with the on-road emissions model MOBILE6 and MOVES.

The sparse matrix approach used throughout SMOKE permits rapid and flexible processing of emissions data. Rapid processing is possible because SMOKE uses a series of matrix calculations rather than a less-efficient sequential approach used by previous systems. Flexible processing comes from splitting the processing steps of inventory growth, controls, chemical speciation, temporal allocation, and spatial allocation into independent steps whenever possible. The results from these steps are merged together in the final stage of processing using vector-matrix multiplication. This means that individual steps (such as adding a new control strategy, or processing for a different grid) can be performed and merged without having to redo all of the other processing steps.

SMOKE is written in Fortran 90 and is designed to run on a variety of UNIX platforms. We currently provide executables for Linux and the source code is available for download and can easily be compiled for your particular system. We do not support running SMOKE on Windows, due to the inherent limitations of that system. The current version of SMOKE is version 2.5, although versions 1.5 - 2.4 are still available for download.

The original SMOKE concept was envisioned in the early 1990's at MCNC by Dr. Carlie Coats, now of Baron Advanced Meteorology Services. Marc Houyoux managed the development of SMOKE until his departure to the U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards in 2002. With active-development continuing at the CEMPD, lead SMOKE development was passed from Catherine Seppanen to Dr. B.H. Baek in 2005. While some SMOKE development is occurring outside of CEMPD, the primary line of development is managed by Dr. Baek under funding from the U.S. EPA.